In addition to the masculine suffix -ec, that has been above-mentioned because of the Vidovic-Muha (), the research in addition to refers to the brand new Slovenian masculine suffix -ar
The first part of the report is mostly about the brand new derivation out-of women and you will male nouns having disciplines into the English and you may Slovenian. The analysis implies that brand new prominent particular feminine nouns inside one another languages relates to derivation thru affixation, when you are English also features compounding. Masculinatives are rare in both languages; he or she is generally formed when it comes to specialities that happen to be traditionally sensed an element of the feminine areas. The latest suffix is not energetic but could be observed in the phrase babicar (‘male midwife’). The most truly effective difference in the two dialects would be the fact latest English is apparently abandoning the application of gender-noted forms (with the exception of the newest uncommon feminatives you to definitely will always be), while inside the Slovenian, because the confirmed of the corpus investigation, employing feminatives is on the rise. The cause of that it asymmetry was grounded on the reality that English features a close low-existent grammatical gender program, and in most cases spends a comparable terms to spell it out a great male or female doing work in a particular career. Thus, when it comes to feminine referents using female nouns is preferred, since the use of masculine simple models is found on the latest decline.
All of our corpus studies suggests that the distinctions ranging from masculine and you can women nouns for professions are best revealed by exploring its collocators, semantic choices, and you can semantic connectivity (Sinclair 1996 and Philip 2010).
Slovenian nouns denoting professions enjoys clear referents pertaining to gender, as well as their modern-day use – confirmed inside the corpora – shows a very clear inclination on agreement between grammatical and you will physical genders
Brand new collocators off English male and you will female nouns toward examined specialities (actress/star, policewoman/policeman when you look at the waitress/waiter) implies that it display particular semantic environments: related disciplines; towns and landscape in the field; personal names; conditions outlining the quality of what they do; as well as the regular strategies regarding the community. Particular certain associative significance also are found if we look at brand new collocators discussing peoples attributes and look. The fresh new feminatives tend to co-exists that have phrases for stereotypically female personality traits and personality (as well as sexual
connotations). This can be in accordance with Caldas-Coulthard and you will Moonlight (2010), which identify particularly asymmetries with stereotypes regarding gender, sexualization of females, including as we grow older and you may conduct.
Slovenian male/female pairs having disciplines tell you equivalent results. Out of semantic liking, we are able to to see phrases associated with normal procedures; normal urban centers and you may surroundings; relevant disciplines; personality traits; and look. Yet the corpus research together with let you know some significant variations. New pairs off Slovenian masculine and you can female nouns writing on procedures are split up into several groups. The original one to constitutes sets that are semantically similar and you will stylistically un), since pairs regarding second class are at the mercy of (an amount of) semantic narrowing and you will stylistic marking.
A model into the earliest classification ‘s the few zdravnica/zdravnik (‘female/male doctor’), each of that co-exist that have words making reference to the sort of work, normal steps and you can relevant specialities. The female nouns in such sets try stylistically unmarked. An equivalent conclusion is going to be reached on the sets sodnica/sodnik (‘female/male judge’) and you will vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj (‘female/male preschool teacher’), but with an effective caveat. The form of the two sodnica/sodnik convergence about sphere away from legislation and you will sport; but not, the knowledge plus echo the fresh new public reputation of your career – the most important ranking (elizabeth.g., constitutional evaluator) are still primarily kepted for men. The pair vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj can be defined as an effective borderline circumstances anywhere between noted kissbrides.com Ressurser and you may unmarked definition. The fresh new corpus investigation strongly recommend a level of semantic narrowing and you can stylistic marking: the meaning of “professor into the students dormitory” means dudes, once the entry to adjectives (patient women and you can rigid males) things to gender stereotyping.